HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Sun, 06 Dec 2020 00:25:03 GMT yy5099影

“压力山大”的行情下 家居建材行业如何“未雨绸缪”?


Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 链家店铺开进门卫室 业主:回家的感觉像卖房 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}

女子以买房为由骗情人18万 以诈骗罪被判3年

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

雷文斯克罗夫特最终不再从事教学工作,他创办了Enabling Enterprise,这是一家寻求减轻学校和企业脱节现象的机构,它让学生走出教室,从事实践项目并实地探访包括瑞银(UBS)和富而德律所(Freshfields)在内的企业。
9. How to reset iPod
All three factors, says Mr Koepke, were at work in the Mexican currency crisis of 1994-95, when the Fed embarked on a tightening cycle in jumps of 25, 50 and crucially, in November 1994, of 75 basis points.

"By the end of next year we will be at the point where the unemployment rate is between 5% and 5.5%, and it will truly feel legitimate," Faucher said.
戴维皮林(David Pilling)
Headquarter shifts: With Toyota leaving for Texas and Mercedes headed toward North Carolina or Georgia from New Jersey, look for Subaru to chart its own path when it builds its new headquarters. One option: Moving closer to its customers by relocating in Vermont.
The book reflects growing anxiety in some quarters about the possible negative impact of automation on jobs, from manufacturing to professional services. The subtitle of its UK edition warns of “the threat of mass unemployment” and, in the US edition, foresees “a jobless future”.
汤姆·汉克斯(Tom Hanks)的小金人一点也不孤单,他把因影片《费城故事》(Philadelphia)和《阿甘正传》(Forrest Gump)获最佳男主角奖而获得的小金人放在奖杯架上,周围还有足球奖杯和过去某个母亲节颁发的“全世界最伟大的母亲”奖杯。


  • 西安质监局:1批次铝合金建筑型材被检出不合格
  • 不论是她与最近崭露头角的说唱乐歌手卡布卡克合作的《Lipgloss》(《唇彩》),还是与凯伦·玛丽·奥斯特(M?)合作的《3AM(Pull Up)》(《凌晨3点(停下来)》),《1号天使》这张专辑的怪异节奏和摇滚舞曲感觉就像这位英国明星的流行音乐才华最纯粹的结晶。

“Where ETFs have grown — in the US and Europe — there is a big ecosystem of financial advisers,” he says. “You need a more advisory model. But until you see people paying for advice rather than paying for commissions, it is hard to see when it will take off.”
单词medal 联想记忆:
8.Wheel Skates
The real Irving is named Mel Weinberg, and he and his mistress were in fact enlisted by the FBI to oust eight elected officials for taking bribes. Just like the film, Weinberg and the FBI developed an elaborate con to catch the corrupt politicians in the act. Weinberg did end up forming a friendship with one of the officials, although unlike in the film, his final immunity deal didn't protect the friend he helped implicate. Some things are just too far-fetched, even for a career criminal.



View Abstract